国 际 竹 藤 组 织

国 际 竹 藤 组 织

乌干达印象(十三)

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乌干达印象(十三)

非洲的乡土建筑是值得运用的一种建造方式,他们的材料都来自于当地的植物和泥土(非洲的泥土粘度非常好,泥土墙体风吹雨打不易剥落)。泥土墙的益处是材料成本低、取材方便,不仅可以隔音、隔热,墙体厚度还能按需要的尺寸把控。

Rural mud buildings in African vernacular architecture is a construction method worthy of our use. Their materials are all derived from local plants and soil (the viscosity of soil in Africa is very good, and the soil walls are not easy to peel off in wind and rain). The benefits of mud walls are low material costs and convenient materials, not only sound insulation and heat insulation, but also the thickness of the wall can be controlled according to the required size

乡村常见泥土墙的茅草屋,农民基本都住这种屋
Thatched houses with mud walls are common in
the countryside, and farmers basically
live in this kind of house

木条和竹子结合做的墙体
Mud wall made of wood and bamboo

乌干达的农村房屋建造是用直径30-60的小树木做墙体经纬拉筋,有些也利用竹子或者小树木结合,再用泥土里外进行涂粉上去,他们的涂抹不是用粉刀而是用手把湿泥往墙上丢,这样保证了经纬纤维筋之间的空隙都粘有泥土。

The construction of rural houses in Uganda is to use small trees with a diameter of 30-60 to make the wall latitude and longitude. Some also use bamboo or smaller trees combined, and then use the soil to smear inside and outside.  They do not use a powder knife but use Throw the wet mud onto the wall with your hands to ensure that the space between the warp and weft fiber tendons is covered with mud.

用手向竹编织的墙体丢搅拌的泥
Throw the mixing mud on
the bamboo woven wall by hand

已经涂抹后的墙体背后
The back of the smear wall

墙体完成沾泥后需要做墙体面层的外表粉刷,也就是墙体面层的颜色是采用什么样的材料,让客人能看到或者知道我们的竹建筑完全是用生态材料建造的。

After the wall is stained with mud, it needs to be painted on the exterior of the wall surface, that is, what kind of material is used for the color of the wall surface, so that guests can see or know that our bamboo houses is completely built with ecological materials.

墙体外层粉刷所用的材料
Materials used for external painting of walls

对于泥土墙而言,各个国家都有一定的文化差异,所以我和Mat(英国人,是个艺术家)两人一直在研究,怎样利用好当地的原始材料。 我也特意去观察和询问那里的泥土墙的建造结构,什么样的泥土可以与植物材料能够密切配合,墙体经纬纤维筋和泥土相互的咬合力如何(非洲的乡村泥土墙墙体一般没有进行外粉刷),我们的要求是需要非常细腻的工艺,这些都要在我们的试验上得到解决。

After all, there is a certain cultural difference among all kinds of  clay walls, so Mat (British, an artist) and I have been studying how to make good use of local raw materials.  I also deliberately observe and inquire about the construction structure of the soil walls there, what kind of soil can closely cooperate with plant materials, and what is the mutual bite force between the warp and weft fiber reinforcement of the wall and the soil (the African rural soil wall generally does not For exterior painting), our requirement is that we need very delicate craftsmanship, which must be resolved in our experiments.

在已经完成后的墙体表面做面层粉刷试验
Do surface painting test on the wall
surface after completion

已经完成丢泥工序的墙体
The wall that has completed
the throwing mud process

我们利用石灰、泥土、红色砖粉、木薯粉等天然的材料做粉墙试验,非洲的蚁巢土是外墙的优质材料,再大的雨水也不会被冲去,以及它的墙体也不会渗水。

We use lime, soil, red brick powder, cassava flour and other natural materials to do the powder wall experiment. African ant nest soil is a high-quality material for exterior walls. No heve at amount of rain washed away and its walls heve not be seepage water.

墙体表层选用的材料
Materials used on the surface of the wall

墙体表层选用的材料
Materials used on the surface of the wall

已经和好的木薯粉
Tapioca flour

已经完成的墙体表层
Finished wall surface

由于我们项目地离城市还是一定的距离,再说非洲有这么好的肥沃土壤都是老天赐给他们的。我们要利用这些土壤还有多余的空地来自己种植蔬菜,这样可以吃到新鲜的蔬菜了,安排固定的工作人员开垦了菜园地,我们精心的播种和插苗,当每天都看到绿油油的蔬菜在不停的长大,我们心里有说不出那种成就的喜悦。

Since our project site is still a certain distance away from the city, God has given them such good fertile soil in Africa. We need to use the soil and surplus open space to grow our own vegetables so that we can eat fresh vegetables. We arrange regular staff to open up the vegetable garden. We carefully plant and plant seedlings. When we see green vegetables every day Growing up, we can’t tell the joy of accomplishment in our hearts.

菜园开始时候种的是西红柿,到结成果实的时候就被狒狒给盯上了,我们做了围栏但狒狒它能很灵活的进入菜园子,每天连吃带摘进行扫荡,我们派人天天守护着,稍不留神还是被这些狒狒给偷走,为了保证自己的供给我们还没有成熟就摘下做菜吃了。

At the beginning we planted tomatoes, but when the fruit was harvested,  were caught by the baboons. We made fences but the baboons can enter the vegetable garden very flexibly, eating and picking every day for mopping up. We send people to guard it every day. was stolen by these baboons a little bit carelessly. In order to guarantee our own supply, we took off the stir-fry before it was mature.

我们亲手种植的空心菜
Vegetables we grow by ourselves

成长中的空心菜
Vegetables we grow by ourselves

我们从中交公司的何总他们营地那里引来了空心菜秧,自己还种些南瓜(吃南瓜藤)、黄瓜、玉米等,空心菜秧种下后经过一段时间的成长,再进行移栽后新出的空心菜越发越多。

We brought in vegetable seedlings from the camp of Mr. He of the CCCC, and we also planted some pumpkins (eating pumpkin vines), cucumbers, corn, etc. After the vegetable seedlings were planted, they grew for a period of time and then branched and transplanted. More and more new vegetables.

种植一个星期后的南瓜
Pumpkins a week after planting

我种在草灰上的南瓜
The pumpkin I planted on grass ash

乌干达人的主食是玉米粉(或者香蕉)、豆子汤(主要含蛋白质)或者木薯粉,除了用盆子装食物外,不用其他的餐具吃饭(极少用金属调羹),基本都是用手抓进丢嘴里去的。

The staple food habits of Ugandans are corn flour or banana, beans soup or tapioca flour. In addition to using bowls for food, they don’t use other utensils to eat (very few With a metal spoon), basically you grab it into your mouth with your hands.

豆子汤里有煮烂的洋葱和西红柿
There are boiled onions and tomatoes
in the beans soup

在非洲去集市或者市区里都有很多煎饼摊位,他们在煎饼里面放上鸡蛋牛肉或者蔬菜等,你需要坐在那里吃还可以要一杯甜味红水或者Wtaer。

In Africa, there are many pancake stalls in the market or in the urban areas. They put eggs, beef or vegetables in the pancakes. You need to sit there eat and can ask for a cup of sweet red water.

乌干达人都习惯于直接饮用自来水,还将空的装水瓶灌入自来水后带在身上,可以在旅途中饮用,这种喝水习惯在赤道的热带雨林地区都是常见的。

The Ugandas drink tap water directly and used to drinking water this way,  also pour an empty water bottle into tap water and take it on body, so can drink it on the road, and they also filled the empty bottled water with tap water to drink on the trip. This drink water habit is common in tropical rainforest areas of the equator.

集市上的煎饼摊贩
Pancake vendor at the market

大街上的煎饼摊贩
Pancake vendor on the street

一位妇女集市上在做木薯粉
A woman is making tapioca at the market

作者:曾伟人