Due to the high economic importance of bamboo shoots and bamboo timber in the southwest of China, natural bamboo forests are experiencing serious biodiversity challenges. Intense management of monoculture forests significantly declines the ability of soil to self-fertilise, which in return destroys habitats for plants, animals and micro-organisms. To address these issues, the project developed biodiversity conservation and sustainable use models in the bamboo forests. These models contributed to a gain in biodiversity. Three bamboo forest sites were actively managed and should act as continued demonstration sites. Through this project, policy recommendations were established and submitted to China’s State Forestry Administration and provincial governmental agencies.